Space Cities

So far, we have only taken into account the influence of climatic type that could affect humans in the future in the normal development of their city life, but we have not taken into account another problem that future generations will have to face and is the problem of gravity, there are worlds like Jupiter whose gravity is unbearable and others like the moon is so poor that serves neither to walk in an acceptable way.

For possible colonization of other worlds like the Moon or Mars, one possible solution could be the use of space cities, developing an orbit around the planet, they would be able to create artificial gravity to your own taste, no having to rely on the whims of each world.

In addition, they should not depend on the duration of the day different in each world and space translation of cities around the globe could be adjusted to a twenty-four hour cycle and on earth thus being more comfortable adaptation.

Planets with excessive gravity and mass would be discarded to inhabit them directly, but turned moons around. Sightseeing trips or to collect minerals continue to be made and thus a closer relationship with the planet would be maintained.

Compact cities would be installed in space in an equatorial corridor placing his exposed to the sun as they would on land and ships to communicate the cities only have to change orbit, just up or down to accelerate or decelerate about them surface. Want back over a city would turn away the planet and thus would slow, want to accelerate descend and would approach the planet and thus would advance.

The system of artificial gravity used would be the centrifugal type, because my view is the most similar to the existing on earth, I believe that human beings would adapt easily to him just as a sailor suits oscillations in a boat.

Installation of cities in space could be useful not only for the worlds with low gravity, because this practice could become generally and thus the typical problems would be avoided in planetary surfaces such as earthquakes, hurricanes or excessive

atmospheric pressures a climate as the Earth is unusual and possibly its good weather will not last forever, this is an option that will be assessed in the coming times.

Space cities would communicate with each other via smaller ships that addressed by the hangars located at its periphery, in order to prevent loss of the atmospheric gas contained therein at the time of exit, they would be equipped with a system compressors that would provide a state of vacuum, and so could be used gases for the following approach could also be used cylinders connection with the ships with which it would be necessary to provide atmosphere around the hangar, recycling systems will be essential for maintaining living conditions in space.

INTEGRATED SYSTEM CENTRIFUGAL

This gravity system would consist of multiple overlapping cylinders placed on each other and set in motion generate force similar to Earth’s gravity, I call integrated system for rotating cylinders would not be exposed to outer space as it would inside a fixed fuselage.

The reason is very simple, so the ship on the outside have a normal, fixed aspect with respect to reference objects like planets, and inside could carry one or more primary cylinders oriented sense of direction, to be oriented forward all G acceleration forces that could withstand the cylinders would apply in the same way on a bus on earth, i.e. the acceleration and braking of the ship does not interfere with the gravitational force generated by moving cylinders.

Each primary cylinder would turn multiple secondary cylinders inside which rotating each at different speeds would be endowed to each of the same gravity closest to the axis cylinders would revolutions in less time in order to generate the same G forces the outer, only the cylinder axis rule for living areas.

Thus the ground would have a slight curvature would increase in the nearest to the axis plants, however passengers hardly notice it as within each section or compartment only a fraction of the total curvature of the cylinder would occur and also may straight plates used for the floor.

Therefore, these spacesuits or all cities have a fixed structure and rigid outer and inner rotating multiple cylinders, one inside another all oriented in that direction.

The integrated centrifugal system is the gravity system that best resemble existing on earth, from a scientific point of view could be said to be identical to earth but in reverse, is not a force that draws us inward, but a rotational force that drives us out, but limited within the cylinder. These two systems are somewhat serious and therefore siblings as useful by one as the other. As for the effects on health or the balance of centrifugal movement I think humans would adapt quickly and it would not matter, it is surprising that with the amount of research that has been done today in space has not yet been seriously addressed build a spacecraft equipped with centrifugal gravity systems, which allow occupants aboard a life better and more like the Earth. Each rotary plant would remain suspended in space without rubbing against one another without using axes, to maintain its stability through a magnetic limiters repulsion of like poles would see that each cylinder does not move from its site would be used.

ROTARY LIFTS

To maintain communicated each rotating rotary plant elevators would also be used, these elevators would move both in a horizontal and vertical direction can be placed in any of the mobile plant. Each certain distance the rotating cylinders would be cut across its section for these elevators can move freely. Extendable rods by these lifts would rise and would decline and progress would reach the speed needed to synchronize on each floor. A bus type vehicles would be responsible for communicating the different rotational drums in the horizontal plane, this would require that one of the drums stop, and so thus to abandon it and move to the next.

SPATIAL DUPLICATION

Inside a planet is common difference between what is situated above and which is located downstream, because gravity is

directed in one direction, but in space this is different, so that the center of gravity of space is balanced masses could build cities or space ships dual way, i.e. equally distributing their mass between its top and bottom. Although there might be not many differences in their foreign apparent aspect, with respect to a planetary ship, though it would be common for your top and bottom were very similar, some things could stay the same way such as keeping the windows only on your part superior, it is a planetary spacecraft could be defined as the sum of a main volume topped by a dome, because in space is as if two of these ships by their bases would join, just as the Earth’s gravity makes the planet just in all sides. However, it could give ships an aspect of verticality apparent, to make it more familiar. Thus a ship has a rotating drum of large gravity could center it in the middle of its structure and thus be easier to locate and deliver their masses with respect to the axis of gravity.

SMALL CRAFT

The system centrifugal gravity could also be used on ships smaller and even in cars, some think this could unbalance the inner ear and balance system, but keep in mind that inside these ships occupants not notice the existence of the rotational movement of the drums also hitherto not been made any serious investigation thereon, i.e. never been built a rotational drum or been tested in humans for their effects.

CRAFT ADAPTABLE

The shuttle craft type, designed to communicate the planets mother ship or remaining as small car, could have serious adaptive mechanism, in order to be able to function both planets and space.

For this purpose the gravity system would consist of a generally rotational drum in turn be divided into two sections or levels, the upper floor could rotate about its axis and thus on the planet would pointing upwards as the lower floor and space would rotate and would pointing to the axis of rotation of the drum, thus in the

space would benefit from the effects of centrifugal gravity and the planet would consistent with planetary gravity, for it would first have to stop the centrifugal drum logically movement. One could also choose not to include systems centrifugal gravity on small ships, to change the benefit would be to remove the uncomfortable curvature in this case it would be visible by the small size of the drum and thus perfectly horizontal ground would anyway these ships could serve both the gravity of the planets as the mother ships in times of takeoff and landing.

CRAFT VERTICALES

Consideration could also be better vertical to all ships, meaning they would have a similar appearance to those operating on the ground in its external aspects, therefore would consist of a main structure topped by a dome or higher structure like that they act on the surfaces of the planets.

To do this, it would be necessary to overlap the rotating cylinders one above the other, cylinders would be in the main structure and other on the upper structure, the disadvantage would be the loss of the mass balance which is achieved by duplication of structures, although that It does not mean that these ships is not possible. The various drums communicate with each other through a bus species remain weightless when moving from one drum to another since the centrifugal gravity only exists within them. Before leaving the drum in which the plant plugs that are would stop and so could go smoothly.

In case you choose not to include the centrifugal gravity system on small ships, they could also be made completely vertical and the lack of gravity would be resolved with the installation of a system of magnetic gravity.

MAGNETIC GRAVITY

In my view the possibility of developing artificially force identical to the own natural on earth gravity by force fields is highly unlikely, the proof is in the fact that throughout the evolutionary history of the earth all biological forms have it

developed multiple methods of propulsion electrical forces or other, but none of them have developed a field such a force to Earth’s gravity, which is why my opinion is that in relation to methods of propulsion the most effective is the action and reaction mass and as for the system best suited gravity is the centrifugal type, do not forget that the process of biological evolution is a great example of scientific progress in many fields of physics and chemistry, so it is reasonable to take this into account, but even if it were possible to have some drawbacks as the harmful influence of those force fields over all its purpose such interference would occur between the different fields have on each floor of a building. You could also place an attractive field under the city in order to generate artificial gravity, but the serious drawback loss progressive force in each plant the more removed the generator also would not be possible to disconnect the force field when it was not necessary as it would with the other system, for this reason the space centrifugal system seems more convincing.

Regarding the use of centrifugal systems to provide surface gravity of moons and planets I think it would be ineffective because of the interference that would be caused by mixing planetary gravity and centrifugal, cities would become filled structures cylinders with sections rotating half Hour half, that would be uncomfortable and the risk of braking caused by gravity. Not forget that the centrifugal system in space is done by rotating drums in the weightless environment and therefore without the risk of braking caused by Earth’s gravity. Under these conditions it is best that the surfaces of the low-gravity worlds magnetic systems are used to produce the attractive force required for the movement of people. This would be achieved by placing electromagnets or permanent magnets plates on the floor, but slightly below it, in order to disperse magnetism. By means of costumes provided sensitive magnetic field metal fibers it would be achieved providing people with sufficient attractive force to be able to walk with relative ease, this force field act primarily from the waist down and had one on each floor in any case this system gravity is a method of supporting a gravity system itself. This

system could also be used in those spacecrafts which for some reason is not deemed appropriate to use centrifugal system.

SPATIAL RINGS

Compact cities would be located in a space ring at a distance in which the period of translation of the same around the planet or moon were equivalent to twenty four hours, thereby day length would like on the surface.

From my point of view, the best way to place the cities would be in a sort of chain in which the cities would line up around the equatorial zone, this place would be about 36,000 kilometers from the planet’s surface, on call geostationary orbit. Space cities would place its top toward the sun and thus would appear that they were on the earth’s surface, all occupy the same orbital plane relative to the earth, cities float separated from each other by an amount of not excessive kilometers. Some distance seem that were forming a spatial ring. On earth would be about 1,000 towns separated each by about 100 kilometers.

To communicate with others only a few cities would require transport ships put in a different orbit to the space occupied by the ring and thus would advance or recede with respect thereto. If move of the planet ships recede with respect to the cities, if they approached the planet ships would move about them, when they reached the city they would want to go occupy the same orbital zone and then stops would be found regarding they.

In order to avoid loss of planetary resources in space ships communication could be propelled photon energy that is pure energy collected from the sun, this energy has little angular momentum, but space is abundant and solves the problem of having to take the planet gases for use in propulsion.

Other ways to solve the problem without resorting to the planet and get reaction mass would indefinitely.

Use meteorites collected in space propulsion But use them would be inconvenient because the space sully also to accelerate engine would become uncomfortable projectiles.

Use space gases: A collecting devices would collect gases own space, which would then be used as a reaction mass. There are

very few gases in space that can be collected, but if the engines of ships the accelerated to high speeds could make their journeys with little amount, plus you only need to give a slight boost to the ships and then these will effortlessly coast to their destination.

Another option would be to use the gases produced by the sun, which comes in the so-called solar wind, these collected gases alone could solve the problem, collecting devices could be installed in the ring structure or in the lunar surface. What it is to use a system of energy indefinitely without having to consume the world’s resources. But there would still be another way to get avoid losing reaction mass in addition to better protect occupants of the ships and cities ring, would be to physically link the space cities by wires or tubes and build two areas of communication through tubes large dimensions allow the smaller ships passing from one city to the other without having to be exposed to outer space or dangerous solar radiation. These tubes completely encircle the planet at a distance and remain physically united cities. A tube would be placed at a certain distance below the cities and another would be placed on them, so the ships who were in those tubes occupy different orbits to cities and therefore have an offset with respect thereto, other tubes communicated these with the central zone occupied by the cities turn these are would cover with a tight sphere close the circuit and thus all living areas would be protected and all reaction gases would be recovered except those used for communication with the planet.

So the tubes can always take their place in space a sort of fins with the solar wind would slow to accelerate or will be used. Thus the living conditions in space would be perfect, not being necessary to return to the planet than for tourism or for mineral resources.

Sightseeing trips to the surface would be made only exceptionally because of its high cost. From the outside these areas would cover cities or tubes that would join a transparent appearance, but could be an artificial effect, and would be built on solid materials several meters thick to withstand cosmic radiation and meteors. Between cities ring bases release ships the planet or outside, solar power stations, in charge of collecting the solar wind to the reaction mass of the craft and spoilers maintainers rings be

installed in its space area, could also be installed artificial parks equipped with centrifugal gravity itself is not essential to go to the planet to see them.

ADVANTAGES OF LIVING IN SPACE OR EARTH

Future societies will have to decide which is better, if you live in stable space stations in planetary orbit or live on the surfaces of planets or moons, of course planets with excessive gravity as Jupiter would be rejected, but instead its moons which offer great expectations for future societies. These planets could however serve as a reserve gas for inhabited planets or to supply reaction mass to the interstellar ships. Each of these life forms has advantages and disadvantages without being very clear which is better.

Living in orbit means to choose one wants gravity at will by using the rotational cylinder, and live on planetary surfaces means having the planet and its resources readily available without having to bridge the gap to the orbit.

Prolonged stay in an environment with low gravity could cause loss of bone and muscle mass, this could be offset favoring the increase in stature of the inhabitants, this increase can promote muscle as a matter of kinetic mechanics would otherwise be reduced minimizing the use of machinery and thus encouraging citizens to make maximal exercise.

In space would be free from earthquakes, hurricanes, excessive atmospheric pressures, opaque atmosphere or volcanic activities such as well as to synchronize its translation into a period of twenty four hours, but the convenience of having the planet closer and accessible would be lost.

In addition magnetic gravity systems previously raised are not a genuine effective systems rather are systems of auxiliary gravity and although only were used for the moments of walking and moving are not comparable to those of centrifugal type, it is also true that many planets and moons have their own gravity and magnetic methods would only be a complement, albeit in low gravity moons would highlight and could potentially be

unpleasant. In any case it is not entirely clear which method is best.

Electromagnets or permanent magnetic plates would be placed on the floor, but slightly below to reduce its intensity, permanent would be mainly in the areas usual walk and electromagnets in areas such as housing where it is not necessary to operate continuously. The biggest flaw of this system is that only gravity acting on magnetism sensitive materials and not on all.

Another advantage of living on the surface of planets would be that there would not exist the risk of losing the reaction gases from the ships, to be caught by planetary gravity thus could be used indefinitely. On planets and moons with low gravity and no atmosphere, the loss of these gases would avoid building a network of communication tubes and domes for cities connected to each other remain connected around the globe and completely sealed habitable zones.